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Anti-gastric ulcerogenic and anti-inflammatory activities of pomegranate peel extract

Pomegranate peel extract exhibited potent antinociceptive, anti-gastric ulcerogenic and anti-inflammatory activities which is very promising in regards to the use of biowaste that is usually discarded. A validated HPLC method for the analysis of Punica peel extract had been developed to test for the concentration of the marker ellagic acid which proved to be reliable and efficient for future standardization experiments.

pomegranate 26WEB TITLE: Anti-gastric ulcerogenic and anti-inflammatory activities of pomegranate peel extract

RESEACH TITLE: Antinociceptive, anti-gastric ulcerogenic and anti-inflammatory activities of standardized egyptian pomegranate peel extract

COUNTRIES: Egypt

CONDUCTED BY: Pharmacognosy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

PUBLISHED ON: Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science

RESEACH: The utilization of the peels of the widely popular pomegranate fruit is the subject of this study. This bio waste product, which has been under study for some time as a source of potential bioactive constituents is investigated for its biological activity. A method for the extract standardization was developed using HPLC and ellagic acid as a reference standard. Results revealed that the pomegranate methanolic extract exhibited potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity comparable to indomethacin, used as a reference, and furthermore, caused no gastric ulcer formation.

INTRODUCTION

Punica granatum L. Puniaceae, commonly known as pomegranate produces an edible fruit that is popularly consumed worldwide. A native to Afghanistan, Iran, China and the Indian sub-continent, this fruit was widely used as part of folk medicine in many cultures which was verified by extensive reports of various biological activities (Lansky and Newman 2007, Jurenka 2008, Ismail, et al. 2012). Nowadays, pomegranates are cultivated around the world in subtropical and tropical regions with different microclimatic zones including Egypt. The world production of this fruit amounts to approximately 1,500,000 tons, where the peels amounts to approximately 60% of the pomegranate fruit weight (Lansky and Newman 2007). The pomegranate husk, or peels, are characterized by an interior network of membranes comprising almost 26–30% of total fruit weight and constitute a higher amount of phenolic compounds than in the fruit pulp (Li et al. 2006). These compounds include flavonoids (anthocyanins, catechins and other complex flavonoids) and hydrolyzable tannins (punicalin, pedunculagin, punicalagin, gallic and ellagic acid) (Ismail, et al. 2012). The therapeutic potential of pomegranate peels has been widely recognized by different cultures. It was used for treating diarrhea and dysentery in traditional Chinese herbal medicine. In Egyptian culture, several common ailments such as inflammation, diarrhea, intestinal worms, cough and infertility were treated using the peel extract. Punicalagin and ellagic acid, the main bioactive constituents in the pomegranate husk, have shown antioxidant, antiproliferative and apoptotic activities (Seeram et al. 2005a, Seeram et al. 2005b; Lu et al. 2007; Madrigal-Carballo et al. 2009). It was also reported that punicalagin in addition to punicalin, strictinin A and granatin B significantly reduced production of nitric oxide and PGE2 by inhibiting the expression of proinflammatory proteins (Lee et al. 2008; Romier et al. 2008). Successful in vitro and in vivo assays indicated that pomegranate peel extract and hydrolysable tannins, in the form of standardized active components, are very effective treatment measure against various inflammatory disorders (Ismail et al. 2012). The use of the pomegranate fruit peel as a biowaste product to be used in pharmaceutical preparations has been recently presented (Abdel Motaal and Shaker, 2011) and in the work at hand, we accentuate the idea by assessing the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the very same model.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

HPLC standardization of pomegranate peel extract The method of standardization used showed a linear relationship between peak areas and concentrations over the range for ellagic acid. Standard solutions of ellagic acid were prepared and analyzed in a concentration range of 0.0027 to 0.0108 g/ml. The regression equation of the curve is Y=11040x+111.4 and the coefficient of regression (R2) was 0.984 confirming the linearity of the method. The LOD and LOQ values for ellagic acid ranged from 1.974 and 5.983 μg/ml, respectively. The quantitative repeatability of the injection was determined by analyzing the quantity of the marker in the extract. A high repeatability was observed with RSD values lower than 0.11843 % and 0.0753 % for inter-day and intraday assay, respectively. Accuracy (expressed as recovery) of the method was determined by analyzing the percentage recovery of the marker. The high recovery value (98.2 %) obtained indicated satisfactory accuracy. Antinociceptive, Antigastric–ulcerogenic and Antiinflammtory activities of pomegranate peel extract The results of antinociceptive test are summarized in Table (1 & 2). The Pomegranate peel extract significantly (p<0.05) increased the tolerance of the rats towards the IR beam. Tolerance time was elevated from 2.54 to 4.58 min. after 30 minutes then increased to 6 min. after 60 minutes then to 6.92 min. after 90 minutes at a dose level 100 mg/Kg b. wt. of the pomegranate peel extract. Similarly, the tolerance time for dose 200mg/Kg b. wt. of the extract showed the same pattern but with a minor change after 60 minutes (6.7 min). The rats were sacrificed to examine the effect of pomegranate peel extract on the gastric ulcer number and severity after 5 hours of oral drug administration. It was found that the pomegranate peel extract showed no ulcer formation compared to the reference indomethacin which formed 3.33 ± 0.614 and severity 4.66 ± 0.71. Concerning the anti-inflammatory effect of the pomegranate peel extract, the edema volume, in the group receiving the extract (200 mg/Kg.b.wt.) had decreased similarly to the group receiving indomethacin (20 mg/Kg.b.wt.) reference standard after 1 h. After 2 hours, the test group showed a high decrease in edema volume by 53.3% which was considerably more than that resulting from indomethacin administration (44.86%).

CONCLUSION

Punica peel extract exhibited potent antinociceptive, anti-gastric ulcerogenic and anti-inflammatory activities which is very promising in regards to the use of biowaste that is usually discarded. A validated HPLC method for the analysis of Punica peel extract had been developed to test for the concentration of the marker ellagic acid which proved to be reliable and efficient for future standardization experiments.

RESEARCH SUMMARY: The utilization of the peels of the widely popular pomegranate fruit is the subject of this study. This bio waste product, which has been under study for some time as a source of potential bioactive constituents is investigated for its biological activity. A method for the extract standardization was developed using HPLC and ellagic acid as a reference standard. Results revealed that the pomegranate methanolic extract exhibited potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity comparable to indomethacin, used as a reference, and furthermore, caused no gastric ulcer formation.

Punica Granatum peel extract exhibited potent antinociceptive, anti-gastric ulcerogenic and anti-inflammatory activities which is very promising in regards to the use of biowaste that is usually discarded. A validated HPLC method for the analysis of Punica peel extract had been developed to test for the concentration of the marker ellagic acid which proved to be reliable and efficient for future standardization experiments.

YEAR: 2014